By understanding the injuries that could occur to kidneys, the heart, muscles, and other vital organs, toxicology studies help to determine the margin of safety of a drug for its expected clinical dose - it’s a reference in guiding the parameters for clinical trials to maximize safety and minimize risk. Not only do toxicology studies frame trial guidance related to duration, administration routes, and dose escalation, they also help to set the parameters for clinical monitoring (i.e., which organs to assess closely).
Toxicologists will investigate the mechanisms by which these substances exert toxicity, as well as how to detect the presence of these substances in various sample types. Additionally, toxicology also involves assessing how to effectively treat animals and/or individuals who have been exposed to certain toxicants.
The substances that are assessed in Toxicology includes environmental agents and chemical compounds found in nature, as well as pharmaceutical compounds that are synthesized for medical use by humans. These substances may produce toxic effects in living organisms, of which can include, but are not limited to, disturbances in growth patterns, discomfort, disease and even death.